This database is designed to allow convenient searches of titles, keywords and abstracts when available (online searches or downloads). Citations from this database can be exported to create specialty databases or personal reprint indexes. FORMIS is only updated every year or two, so it is not a source for the most recent ant literature.
Please note that about half of the citations in this database have been verified against the original. All citations that are not tagged as having been verified should be checked against the original before use in publications.
Expansion and updating FORMIS will require the cooperation of its users. Please read the information on the updating page. For additional questions about the database please contact Dr. Sanford Porter.
This database is distributed in an EndNote® format. A free 30-day trial version of EndNote is available for both PCs and Macs.
FORMIS 2023.enl file and data folder (~300 MB)
FORMIS 2023.enlp package (~100 MB)
FORMIS 2023.enlx compressed file (~66 MB)
One or more of these formats should be compatible with EndNote versions 8 through X10 on both PCs and Macs. Contact Dr. Porter if you have technical problems (see link above).
Search Notes and Quirks:
Daniel Wojcik assumed the role of Editor of FORMIS in June 2000 and FORMIS has more than doubled in size under his efforts. Sanford Porter continues to serve as an Associate Editor. Previous versions of FORMIS (1993-1999) were compiled and edited by Dr. Porter.
Personal Citations: Argentina: A.G. Farji-Brener, Australia: R.H. Crozier, A. McArthur, Austria: F. Glaser, Belgium: J.C. de Biseau, J. Billen, C. Detrain, B. Gobin, Brazil: C.R.F. Brandao, J.H.C. Delabie, Finland: P. Punttila, France: R. Blatrix, R. Boulay, P. D'Etorre, C. Errard, V. Fourcassie, A. Lenoir, J.L. Mercier. C. Peeters, A. Pezon, Germany: J. Heinze, B. Holldobler, J. Moog, O. Rueppell, K, Schilder, Italy: C. Baroni Urbani, Japan: U. Yoshihiro, Mexico: R. Jusino-Atresino, New Caledonia: H. Jourdan, J. Chazeau, Russia: G.M. Dlussky, V. Kipyatkov, A.A. Zakharov, Spain: X. Espadaler, P. Lorite, Switzerland: M. Chapuisat, A. Freitag, L. Keller, R. Meier, J. S. Pedersen, United Kingdom: A.F.G. Bourke, United States: A.A. Callcott, J.C. Cokendolpher, J.R. King, J. Klotz, P. Krushelnycky, L.W. Morrison, D. Oi, S.D. Porter, S.K. Robson, J.O. Schmidt, W.R. Tschinkel, R.K. Vander Meer, E. Vargo, J.T. Vogt, P.S. Ward, R.M. Weseloh, J. K. Wetterer, D.P. Wojcik.
Special Contributions: R.J. Lavigne gave permission to use citations and annotation from An Annotated Bibliography of the Harvester Ants, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis (Cresson) and Pogonomyrmex owyheei Cole). Terry Krueger checked back issues of the Annals of the Entomological Society of America (to 1996), Environmental Entomology (to 1996), Economic Entomology (to 1996), and Insectes Sociaux (to 1996). Daniel P. Wojcik has checked all issues of the Florida Entomologist (to 1998). V. Fourcassié provided ant citations from Actes Colloq. Insectes Soc. (1988-1999). A. Van Pelt provided 400 citations from his personal literature files. The Japanese Ant Database Group provided more than 100 new citations dealing with Japan (1999). D. Agosti provided web links to about 600 taxonomic PDF files online at the American Museum of Natural History.
UCD Ant Literature Database (about 4000 citations). Philip S. Ward, Steve O. Shattuck, William L. Brown, Jr. These references are a subset of 8467 non-taxonomic references collected incidentally while assembling a database of ant taxonomic literature. About 60% of the selected references came from William L. Brown's reprint files. The specialized database on the literature of ant systematics (ANTBIB) is available in dBase and EndNote formats. A printed version is also available from the University of California Press. Work is in progress to incorporate ANTBIB into FORMIS.
AGRICOLA (about 6412 citations). National Agricultural Library, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. NAL is to be especially commended for their policy of allowing non-profit scientific use of citations from their database. AGRICOLA references are especially valuable because they are keyworded and many of the foreign language titles have been translated into English. Recent citations may also include abstracts.
Biblio Fourmis (about 1600 citations). Daniel Cherix, Laurent Keller, Luc Passera, Michel Chapuisat. These citations are a subset of about 6000 ant-related reprints in the authors' combined files.
References used in The Ants (about 2000 citations). Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson. These citations are a subset of over 3000 papers cited by Hölldobler and Wilson in their book (Hölldobler and Wilson 1990).
Baroni Urbani Bibliography (almost 1000 citations). Cesare Baroni Urbani, Zoologisches Institut der Universitat Basel, Rheinsprung 9, Ch-4051 Basel, SWITZERLAND. These citations are especially important because they contain almost 800 abstracts and are extensively keyworded.
Fire Ant Literature Database (about 4400 citations). Daniel P. Wojcik and Sanford D. Porter. This is a comprehensive literature database for the imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri. Each reference is keyworded and the database includes almost 500 abstracts. This database can be extracted from FORMIS by searching for "Fire Ant Literature Database" in the notes field. Periodic updates can be obtained by writing the authors.
Comprehensive Leaf-Cutting Ant Bibliography (about 4200 citations). H. G. Fowler and F.M. Schlittler. This database is extensively keyworded. It can be extracted from FORMIS by searching for "Leaf-Cutting Ant Bibliography" in the notes field. This bibliography added more than 1600 citations to FORMIS.
Pharaoh Ant Bibliography (about 1200 citations). Karen Vail, David F. Williams, Klaus-Peter Berndt, Wolfdietrich Eichler, Jerzy Wisniewski. This database can be extracted from FORMIS by searching for "Monomorium pharaonis". Titles of 233 citations in this database have been translated into English. Rolf Meier and Betina Moser helped with title translations.
Russian Wood Ant Literature Database (about 940 citations). Vladelin Kipyatkov and D.S. Malyshev. This database can be extracted from FORMIS by searching for RFORMICA in the Notes field. The database is extensively keyworded and Russian titles have been translated into English. This was funded by the USDA Forest Service.
Santschi Ant Bibliography - (210 citations). Rolf E. Meier, Glarnischstrasse 152, CH 8708 Mannedorf, SWITZERLAND. This database contains all known publications of F. Santschi about ants. It is keyworded and all titles have been translated into English. Last updated 1995.
ANTBIB. A bibliography of ant systematics - (about 8100 citations). Philip S. Ward, Barry Bolton, Steven O. Shattuck, Wiliam L. Brown, Jr. See Ward et al. 1996. This bibliography is particularly valuable because of its completeness and because almost all citations were verified and have publication dates. Last updated 1996, some additions 1999 and 2000.
The simplest way to contribute to FORMIS is to send Dr. Porter your reprints or PDF files.
The best way to contribute would be to send new or modified citations in an EndNote, Word, or text file format along with the reprints and/or PDF files.
Please begin by inspecting citations of your own work for accuracy and completeness. The addition of keywords and/or abstracts would be especially useful.
Potential Contributors of Specialty Bibliographies
It is hoped that this database will become a magnet and distribution mechanism for specialty ant bibliographies like the Fire Ant Literature Database. Specialty bibliographies are needed for genera such as Formica, Camponotus, Myrmica, Pheidole, Monomorium, Messor and Cataglyphis to name a few. Specialty bibliographies on subjects such as foraging, bioenergetics, myrmecophiles, and ant-plant symbioses would also be useful. Geographic bibliographies for places like Hawaii, India, Mexico, Brazil, etc. could also be assembled.
Specialty bibliographies can range from a few dozen citations to several thousand; the only requirement is that they be thorough. Assembling such bibliographies could be part of a thesis project and the resulting bibliography would be a publication in FORMIS.
If you or one of your students are interested in contributing a specialized bibliography to FORMIS, please contact Dr. Wojcik or Dr. Porter for suggestions about how this can be done and who else might be doing something similar.
A standard EndNote file would be the most convenient format, although other formats are also possible (contact Dr. Porter for format details). To avoid copy write problems, please do not send citations downloaded from commercial databases.
References that are not in FORMIS should be sent in files named "ADDNEW".
References in FORMIS that need to be modified should be copied out of FORMIS and pasted into a file called "MODIFIED". Once in the "MODIFIED" file, citations can be corrected, keyworded, and verified (see below). Abstracts can also be added.
Duplicate citations or those not related to ants should be pasted into the "DELETE" file.
Bibliographies that are in text format can generally be automatically tagged using a word processor and read into EndNote using a tagged format.
If more than a few dozen citations in FORMIS are to be modified, please send a file with the unrevised citations and another with the revised ones. The file with unrevised citations will be used to find and delete old citations from the database.
Standards Used in FORMIS